tv Navy League Sea Air and Space Exposition Part 1 CSPAN May 6, 2019 4:34pm-6:11pm EDT
from fbi director christopher wray on president trump's 2020 budget request for the fbi. he will appear before senate appropriations subcommittee, live tuesday at 9:30 am eastern on c-span three. wednesday, senate judiciary subcommittee on border security will hold a hearing to look at humanitarian and security challenges on the u.s. southern border. live at 2:30 eastern also on c-span3. >> earlier today, the navy sea, air, ands space exposition in maryland. leaders from the navy, coast about and marines talked militarye and readiness. this is an hour and a half. thank you for coming. the navy league has chosen to frame this kickoff panel in interesting way. what does it take to command our maritime forces?
it reminds me of a conversation i had some years ago and i ask, why do navy command tours last about 18 months? well, you see, is just so hard to stay awake any longer than that. [laughter] i don't know if that rings any bells. up theirbout to wrap own senior commanders in a few months or with, not schulz or administrator busby. we are delighted to have them here to lead off our day. what does it take to command our maritime forces? i understand this is seeking to know what the leadership philosophies are necessary to guide us through our changing times and how we apply the philosophies to today's very specific circumstances, changing times. the pentagon is focusing on great power conflict. advanced technology bringing new
capabilities to actors large and small. the world is warming, the climate is changing. and so i've asked each of our panelists to start off talking about what it takes to lead their services in this time of immense change. and that will start us off on a discussion and i'll add some questions, but what i'm really trying to foster here is good, professional dialog among our panelists. men obviously of great distinction and vast experience. so, ultimately, i'll open it up to your questions. so, get those ready and when it's time, raise your hand and someone will bring a mic to you. i don't think we have mics stand up, we are going to bring the mic to them. oh, and if you would please keep the questions short. oh, keep them short. all right. so let's start with you, admiral richardson and go down the line to the general admiral schultz , and administrator busby. >> great. happy to lead off. before i get going, maybe just like to say what a worldclass
event this year's sea, air, space exposition is, and it gets better every single year, but i think it's riding a great wave of enthusiasm and professionalism and skill that is the navy league of today. so for the head table down here, let's give a nice round of applause for the navy league and everybody that's down there. doing terrific work. top-notch. [applause] i'd like to say with a great deal of humility that i share the stage with my fellow partners here, friends, colleagues, fellow commanders in every respect and sense of the word. so like i said, you know, i look forward to learning from them in that spirit of continuous learning. i think that our approach to command rides on a couple of fundamental principles.
one, militaries in general and i think maritime forces in particular thrive on a decentralized approach to command. all right? we do best by giving our commanders the mission, some commanders intent and then sending them over the horizon with their teams and with full expectation that they're going to go out there, execute the mission, not only really execute the mission, but do everything that they can to move towards our ultimate objective. seizing every fleeting opportunity and to do that. and you know, some of those opportunities, we're just not going to see back at the higher headquarters. a great deal of expectation and trust and confidence placed in the leaders. in fact, trust and confidence i would say are the coins of the realm for the leadership in the military and in the maritime forces.
and so, we ask ourselves, what does it take, really, to earn or, you know, have that relationship of trust and confidence particularly with respect to command? and we've centered on four things, you know, one, you've got to have expertise. you've got to know what you're doing from a technical standpoint. otherwise, no matter how sincere you are, you're just not going to know good from bad, right? and a situation could be decaying in front of you and without that expertise you wouldn't know it to react to it. there's technical expertise, you've got to know your business. and then the three elements that we've also got to instill in that commander are certainly responsibility, accountability, very familiar to everybody who has ever held command, and then authority, right? because the most frustrating situation is where we send someone out with great expectations, a mission, we're going to hold them responsibility and accountable for that mission, but they don't
have the full authority needed to really get after it and execute it. and so, it's those four things. if you're short one of those four things, i don't think that you've got full ownership of the situation and it's very hard to have that relationship of trust and confidence. and so, i think maybe that's enough theory of the case, and i'll let my colleagues speak to, you know, some specific applications. >> well, good morning, everybody and i'm echo the cno's comments. thanks to the navy league and to the organizations out there that advocate and support and do great stuff for all the members of the sea service and all of our members of our military. it's important that you are the connecting file between those of you wearing the uniform and many of you previously wore the uniform connecting between us and the american people and we really appreciate that because i
think it's important that we maintain that connection. i think, as you get near the end, and i'm not going to speak for the cno, he's still got some time to go, but i've never been in a job this thing. it was mentioned 18 months, man, that would have been wonderful. so now approaching 40, 40 months, 42 months, 43 months. who's counting? but you kind of get -- coming up on four years, coming up on four years, pretty close. but you kind of get retrospective and look back and think about probably more than you should the stuff you wish you had done as opposed to the stuff you did get done. i was headed to quantico the other day and having a discussion about safety, live fire, ground maneuver and one of the senior marines there goes you know, general, you're kind of like the village elder. [laughter] that's better than the village idiot. [laughter]
so i guess i am the village elder because i am the oldest active duty serving marine today and you know, as you get here, you look back at what the service was like when you came in and i'm not going to go down memory lane with everybody, but back to the leadership thing. you know, you don't know what you don't know. you think when you come into this office you know a lot about the marine corps, but again, as people said to me, how do you-- how is it going? i said i don't know, i've never been the commandant before and there's a lot of things, just like john's never been the cno before so you know what you know, but it's a very different thing and i think that the things that as you're trying to lead and change an organization, because i think everybody knows there's change required. we've been at war since 9/11.
we've been fighting a certain type of adversary and in the meantime, others have come up with capabilities and reasserted themselves on the global scene and we've got to adjust to that. so, in order to do that, you have to make tough choices. the dilemma we've faced talking in a practical sense, maintain current operations, reset or the gear you have to do that and at the same time create a future force that going to be able to be competitive against what you're trying to predict is the adversary, which is a difficult task, even with unlimited resources. but i think in order to do that, i think you have to be open to look at others, both other organizations. i read, i think, admiral richardson, i'm not saying this because i'm trying to suck up to him i'm satisfying -- saying it because it's true, he's reached out and training, and sailors, and becoming a learning organization. i think you have to have a certain level of curiosity as to
why something happened. i think you look at everybody and see what they're doing and if you're not paying attention to what they're doing and adjust yourself accordingly, i think you're missing something along the way. because there's the change that is downstairs on the exhibit floor and all the things that we're dealing with, the change that's happening so quickly, that probably at a more rapid pace than we've ever seen because of the exponential rate of technology. the singularty, and everything is rapidly exponentially accelerating. all of that is going on and i think you have to be open to those things. i think you have to surround yourselves with people knowledgeable about that stuff and knowledgeable about things that you're not knowledgeable about and empower them to be
able to speak their mind. every organization has people that are with your normal times be considered on the periphery because they're not afraid to stand up and speak their mind and criticize and come up with new ideas and a lot of times, the crowd will shout them down as opposed to embrace them and protect them and i think you have to be able to take that. because it is painful when you've got people within your own organization shouting out hey, why aren't we doing this, do that? instead, you should say that's a decent question and we probably should take a look at that. i don't know -- i don't have any secret sauce other than being competent to the best of your ability. hopefully others see the same way, but being a person of virtue and character, being open to new ideas and being willing to accept the risk for change as we go forward and i think, you know, we won't know how we did, maybe for ten years, when somebody looks back and say,
hey, this is when we started to make the change from a to b. but again, i appreciate the opportunity to be here and appreciate what you do and in support of the naval forces and look forward to your questions. >> thanks, brad. always tough to following the longest serving member in uniform in the cno. don't forget. he reminds you that constantly. and i take the look through the lens of the coast guard we're smaller, 41,500 geographically dispersed. i want to thank the navy league, the touch points with the coast guard are tremendously impactful. whether it's recognizing the quarters or-- we get a tremendous support from your organization. the industry, we're approaching a $12 billion coast guard today so we have a different relationship with industry than we've had in the past. so for those vendors and folks interested in what we're doing, we're in a vendor, recapitalizing the coast guard. as the fifth armed service, the
smallest of the armed services, what's different we're first and foremost an armed force, military force housed different in the homeland security where we should sit, but we're a federal regulatory agency. common sense, and work with maritime industry. we're a law enforcement, first responder and you see the men and women of the coast guard respond during the last years unprecedented with the hurricane. you bring a different mix, it's not just leading in the military paradigm and dimension, you have to work with one small sheriff and a community in the coast of california and with the national intelligence committee, a member since 2012. as we lead maritime forces it's the broad continuum. i'm keenly focused and our team is, on readiness. the fifth armed service we didn't get the bump up here with the readiness funding that the president rightly applied to the military service. we're getting support in other areas and making that
conversation and narrative. i am keenly focused on readiness, all the armed services is looking at environment there's a keen competition for talent. so i need leaders focused on that. how do you recruit, develop and retain the best and brightest the nation has to offer with an environment less than 3 1/2 unemployment? we have to think differently. i bring about 3500 men and women into the coast guard annually through our training at cape may, and a couple thousand officers. that's a-- a few hundred officers, those aren't big numbers. we've got to treat folks right. we're based on retention model. almost 40% of our men and women go on to careers. and the office of blended retirement folks get to 12 years and have the option to leave the services for an organization, that's apprentice, journeyman, subject matter expert. we've really got to make service attractive and that includes upward mobility and inclusive
environment and we're trying to broaden the diversity of the coast guard. i need leaders dialed in on that, dialed in on accomplishing the mission and also looking at how does the world's best coast guard 15 years down the road in a different environment retain talent and remain the best coast guard. the second thing we're focused on is both bob and john talked about the complexity of the environment. the demand for our services is unprecedented. we've never had more places asking for coast guard. whether it's our domestic homeland security missions counter drug, taken 1.4 million pounds of cocaine off the water and 1800 smugglers, to supporting john's people in the 7th fleet with the national security cutter. working withtudes, the general in the antarctic, we are globally dispersed. how do you take this unique instrument with the broad
authority of the coast guard and supply it to the combatant commanders with increasing demand. we still rescue 24,000 people here domestically and support the security in 360 sea ports. 2500 miles of inland rivers, about 5.4 trillion dollars of annual economic activity tied to 30 million jobs. we're an enabler of economic prosperity and lastly, i touched on briefly, you know, just talking keenly dialed in on mission readiness, mission performance and it's mission excellence, anytime anywhere is what we call it our third line of efforts in our strategic plan. so i'm looking for leaders in the coast guard, and a lead through leaders model like john talked about and bob, empowered leaders that make good choices and understand the political context. one sailor's bad behavior is
washington news here quick and think of leaders ahead of the flash to bang news cycle existing. i think i'll stop there and burn it over to buzz here. >> all right. thank you. good morning, everybody. great to be with you again this year. and as the only person in a civilian blue up here today, that, i think, underscores the merchant marine. we're not a uniformed service. people have not sworn in. these are civilians working for civilian companies who are doing an incredibly important mission for our country ensuring our economic security as well as our national security. they are absolutely key to sustaining the folks that are here in uniform. they are the means by which we are able to project our forces and our power and then sustain
it around the world. and it all falls on back of civilian volunteers, people who have made the personal decision to serve at sea in a licensed or unlicensed capacity on ships that don't have a u.s.s. or a coast guard cutter or a usns in front of their names. so commanding and controlling basically a private industry brings upon its own set of challenges and opportunities the flexibility that we get as a result of that sort of lash up is powerful and enables us to do some things that are otherwise probably constrained in a military environment. we can do that. and i basically have two kind of groups that i have to kind of worry about. i have the purely civilian companies, steamship companies that provide service to the u.s. government, either through
commercial contracts or through a maritime security program which we fund and oversee at marad which provides a stipend for 60 militarily useful flagships to stay under the u.s. flag and to carry military and commercial cargos. and to be available in times of crisis when we need them to do that sustained mission. so i have that group of people and they are doing their regular commercial business day in and day out, but they are subject to kind of the oversight that we provide at maritime administration and then i have the government-owned fleet. this is a ready reserve force. these are 46 ships that i maintain, that i own and they're funded by admiral richardson, that provide our first push of sea lift in the event of a critical emergency or a war lift. coast guard commandant, he gets to ride on his own cruise line provided by the navy, amphibs.
they are loaded with his gear and they are out there, but the army doesn't have a cruise line to take them overseas. they rely on me as well as the air force. and then sustainment for all the forces once we get into a prolonged operation. so those 46 ships are maintained in a five-day readiness spread around the coast. the average age of those ships is 44 and a half years old. i know commandant has got a few of that age as well so we know, we commiserate about maintaining old ships from time to time, but that's a real challenge and those ships have to be ready to go and answer a five-day readiness to move the majority of our garrison based forces overseas in a major contingency. again, crewed by civilian mariners. people who volunteer fulfill those positions. so, working very closely with
those companies, with the unions who are absolutely critical, to making sure. and they are probably the first line of command and control over their personnel. and that we work with them and the steamship companies to ensure that we have that reliable efficient sea lift should the nation need it. and it's, as you heard, it's done with some fairly old equipment, which in itself brings up readiness challenges, 44-year-old ships don't rest easy, and they need a lot of love and tender care and a lot of money, and that's a continuous challenge. also to keep people motivated. you know, when you're on a ship that's not going anywhere very often, keep them active and keep them interested in the program requires a lot of travel by me, i go out and visit them quite a bit and touch them and make sure they understand where they fit
in in this grand scheme of our national defense. and by and large they do. and i'll just end by sharing with you the command philosophy that i brought to marad, which is the same one that i used to the military sea lift command when i commanded there and my very first ship. it's basically three pillars in accomplishing our mission, put your people first above and all and i think you heard that all up and down the line here this morning. second is be a professional. i expect everyone to be the very best at what it is they do. and number three is be a good shipmate because that's how professionals treat each other, as good shipmates. i try to enforce, you keep those three things in mind and we'll be square between them and me and we'll have the force necessary to meet our nation's needs in the future. so thanks. >> great, thank you. i think we heard from several of our folks up here about how crucial learning is to leadership. and especially in a time of great change.
i know, general, you mentioned that you like to surround yourself with people who know this stuff and that's how you learn. but i'd like to hear from the other three how you personally learn. your jobs are so difficult. all the easy decisions have been made before they get to you, your time is precious. where do you find the time to learn and how do you do it? admiral, first with you. >> and sure. first i'd like to say, you got a taste of it in the opening remarks, i learn a lot by spending time with folks like general miller, and the rest of the team up here. and so, you know, the connections between leaders, i would say, are absolutely treasures, right? to make sure that we can learn from one another and learn from one another, not only from a
professional standpoint for the technical standpoint, if you will. but also, you know, there's at every level of command, i think, the group of people that you can really share lessons be and shire issues with gets smaller so it becomes even more important that i can call up our tribal elder every now and then and just ask, now, hey, i'm dealing with this and how would you do it? there's that type of learning. another thing that's been a key facet of my approach to learning, ever since i taught the submarine command course, we learn a tremendous amount from similar carses and allies and partners. maybe if we could have somebody here from an allied or partner navy sea or space, stand up and be recognized. everybody. come on. [applause] yeah. thank you so much for that doing that.
and boy, i'll tell you, around the fundamental principles of command and what the job we have to do is, our different approaches that are defined by our different circumstances and different nations, that's a tremendous opportunity for learning as well. i always love standing in formation with our partner navy because you learn a different way of getting after the same amount of business. so a lot of different avenues for learning. admiral schultz, you want to he will us yours? >> yeah, i would say piggyback on john for us, foreshadowing about the organizations and touch points. for me there's learning inside the life lines and as a commandant you don't envision being the commandant of the marine corps, cno, and you're there. i look to our enlisted leaders and flag-- we're not a big organization, 40 flag officers, many specialties so i find sitting around the table. we have a touch point every
friday with our seniormost leadership team and a touch point with broader team on monday so there's thriving learning inside. and outside, i find the desire, interest in reading books is harder, i find i'm reading more journals, industry things, and news. and not by law the joint force, but the chairman, an allowed the coast guard to sit with the service chiefs and force with the tank sessions and find how the nation thinks and war fighters in the nation think and so it is a privilege to sit with these two gentlemen. and we work with the maritime administrator on a regular basis and buzz talked about the ready reserve maritime nsb program. we regulate the space and those are collaborative leaderships. i find going to new york and talking to abs, being in houston, touch points. for me it's constant what are the folks we regulate. and how do they perceive the coast guard.
ultimately you're a regulator, you have to regulate. how do you take in and understand your role to protect the interest of the nation. for me it's getting out and hearing from folks. i don't like the term customer, but i'd say stake holders. hearing from the stake holders, processing that down and through the ranks of my center leader team and how they see it. i'm a surface operator, i've got lawyers, got acquisition folks, how do you pull the best of that team together and then lead the organization forward. >> admiral busby. >> yeah, all in on the commandant there and it comes down to the c-word, communication. it's not just the transmittal, but especially in this realm, it's the receipt of being willing to listen. typically, you know, as you get more senior, there's a little bit of a tendency to not hear as well either because you've been around loud machinery or because
you're tuning it off and you're more in a transmit mode than a receive mode and you've got to spin that around and totally be out on the deck plate listening and asking. sometimes they're going to be afraid to tell you something and i think we've all had the experience where you go down there and you ask the deck seaman or the grunt, how is it going? nine times out of ten they'll tell you and be honest about it, but they won't volunteer unless you kind of give them the in. i've learned more about this industry that i now find myself in charge of that i thought i knew a fair amount about. i went to merchant marine academy and i had my roots in the industry and kept my foot in it. i was in the surface navy for the better part of my life so, you know, coming into it thinking that i knew what i was getting into you know, maybe not so much especially when i went down and started going aboard ships and asking how things are going and what are your challenges, and how does this
work and policies we're putting forward how does that really effect you. being willing to listen and take it on board, i think is huge. i have learned so much by just asking how is it going. it has been awesome to hear the feedback and be in a position to actually do something about it. >> when it comes time to do something about it you found a , problem and learned about it, you can give instructions, but ultimately it may be something that is so disruptive you have to change your organization. organizations are not set up to do whatever it is you need to do. the story is told of kodak as a quintessential organization that didn't see change coming and got run over. i think the truth is differently there. executives of kodak did know that chemical film was on the way out and invested in digital technology but their
organization was just not able to change fast enough. general, you had said it's not enough in this era to keep up with technological change and innovation, that to the basic change not only in the technology but also in your organization has to change, has to go faster. tell us a little bit, everybody, about how you're making sure that your organizations are changing to keep up with today's radically changing times. first, i want to thank buzz for giving us on your advertising slogan, go to war on a cruise line. thank you. thank you for taking us on cruise liners. it's easy to change when you have a catastrophe, because then you do the forensic and then
people say ok, there was something wrong or probably not something wrong, 80 we just didn't follow the procedures. maybe, the people who preceded us for the last 240 years were not foolish men and women and the road a lot of this stuff down, and so sometimes it just comes down to execution. but you see a a situation or you anticipate a situation, i think that's, those people that i think have been affected as leaders anticipated something to happen and then they convince everybody else that is worthy of paying attention to. because people, change is hard. because when you change something when there is a catastrophe, that would apply to the people that are doing what they're doing that they're doing something wrong, which is not the case. so you have to explain look, what were doing, we did what we did, we did it well, but the situation is going to evolve over time and here are the signs that we see. i think you get that by reading, listening to others, i paying attention.
i think you have to make the case. it's usually, there's usually others in the organization that see it before you do. they may or may not be vocal about it, and so there's always risk there. because as i said, prepare for something that you're anticipating doesn't take away the fact you have to do stuff day-to-day. the day-to-day mission is not going to go away. there's risk if you take time and effort and resources away from day-to-day and focus on something that you anticipate. but when the signs become so clear you have no choice. i think most people get on board. so i think that's what we struggle with every day. i think the joint force, i can only speak for the marine corps, it's not that we don't have things that we are doing every
day, every organization up your own avoiding has got stuff that they do day-to-day and they do in the environment they do it in but then have to figure out, going to do if that environment changes, if it becomes contested. if we're going to have to not just operate, move and across the sea lines of the medication, -- of communication we have to , protect ourselves, with a fight to get to the fight, protect our maritime assets and platforms, that were going to -- do we have enough of them? those are the questions that are being addressed anything we are trying to out a way to do that using not just the capability we have today but the capabilities we tried to develop in the future. those cases have to be made, and at some point i think at the end of the day that's why you're somebody who leads the organization and have to say this is what were going to do, and then you accept the risk, you own the risk, and then you set the course and then you have to monitor and make sure it goes we think it's going to go. it's never a straight line.
you may have gotten some of your assumptions wrong. you may have got that information, or the situation changes. situations are not static. your potential opponent may continue to be evolving in their capabilities. so it's a very dynamic environment, and again, with the change, the technological change going as fast as it is, we've got to be even more agile and flexible and adaptable than we've ever been in the past. >> admiral, you want to take it next? >> i think just as the commandant said, change in anticipation of an event or of a revolution is a lot harder than change after a problem. so the question i asked a lot of our navy officers, can we have our pearl harbor moment without pearl harbor? can we get to guadalcanal moment without having guadalcanal?
it's extremely hard to do something like that. but i think that moment jesus us right now with respect to some of the technologies everybody has referred to, particularly, and secretary lord talked about this morning, this idea of sort of software-based digital-based types of approaches. and so it is speeding everything up, change and we do business. i would something recently from a bank, a ceo of a worldwide global bank, and they said it used to be a bank with the network and i think i'm a network with a bank, right? that's kind of a different lens through which to think about doing your business. and so instilling a change and giving to the level of performance, responding to the revolution before a catastrophe
happens as a, that says it's extremely important. and particularly this one with digital and information systems that's going to bind us all together a lot more closely than we have historically been bound together. we have had sort of the luxury, if you will, of being able to do man, train, and equip and all those sorts of things, and relative stovepipes in the we can bring it together in the operational context late in the game. i think this digital information-based approach is going to require as to integrate across all of our services and i would say in particular the maritime services, the air force as well, as, and the army for that matter. everybody is going to have to get into this network from the ground up. because it's going, the person, that the team that controls that
information space, and that's contested terrain just every other domain now, is going to have a vast advantage by discord to take organizational change to make that happen. >> admiral schultz? been said,a lot has i think for us the people have competitive advantage. and how do you create more for rebuilding? how to think about managing talent differently so you can be the best and brightest who may not have 20, 30 year career? or how many folks looking forward will approach it the same way the cmc and i did your -- years ago. this was your career and playing it out until you sort of told to go a little bit at the end of the day. we've got to allow folks that want to serve, find some portability, permeability, how to bring the skills to the table. we promote officers in one general promotional pool. for us how to bring a team of cyber expert on board and then carry them through and get some return on investment? we got to think differently. i think the question really about change, it is about being anticipatory. what is around the corner?
as we look at regulating in the maritime space, autonomous ships are upon us and how do you regulate the safety aspects? we're dealing with that with vehicles on highways. the technology is there. how do you take the technology and bring it to a point when we can tell you it's safe to operate and allow that to go on? we focus on understand the problems, seeking the best talent and putting the talent against it. i strive to make sure we encourage our folks to take wanted risks and fail fast your smart failure if you try something, 85%, it's not looking good, punch out a let's go about the business but wanted risk is very much a part of our lexicon, kind of coupled up with a bias for action. those are the kind of leaders and many women we in the coast guard to sort of position us to work in a private that really is dynamic and constantly subject to change. >> great. let's talk about applying these principles to some of the real-world challenges we face.
shifting to focus on great power competition, and the new report, pentagon's new report on china just came out and it turns out they are catching up fast, or at least developing major capabilities very quickly. everybody is doing interesting stuff in westpac, both in reaction to and in anticipation of chinese moves. let's talk a little bit about that. admiral, let me start with you. seventh fleet obviously is down two destroyers and the shipyard fire seems like it's going to make some download for the. down even further. how are you getting with the ship shortage of there? >> i don't think there's a ship shortage. we had a historic and i think all services come with more mission and we forces to the mission. we're typically at about i think roughly 50% batting average in terms of meeting combat commander demands. that's just kind of what we can provide on a sustainable basis.
we've been able to adjudicate the priorities within those constraints and meet the mission, the all the missions we've been assigned to do. and so i don't see it so much as kind of a ship shortage thing as how do we get the most sustainable performance out of the force that we are provided? you mentioned great power competition. it's been mentioned a lot. i want to highlight administrator buzby attribution to that. as we think about great power competition and we think just beyond sort of the superficial tactical, you immediately go to logistic support. that immediately goes towards all of those forces that are under his command, if you will, and without that it's over pretty quickly. this need to reconstitute that super important part of our force is really critical to
exercising great power competition. and maximizing that sustainable force level that we can provide. i think that's really about the approach. if you come off of that, you know, the fundamentals of maintenance and training and certification, well then, you're going to, eventually that's going to catch up to you. we really making sure that as the pace quickened, as new technologies into the fray, as the security environment manifests itself in a really fast changing world, that we don't forget those fundamentals in terms of providing sustainable forces. >> ok. you say you just can't meet most of the requests are half the request of the combat commands because they're so much out there to do. the navy is amid a new force structure assessment. basically it looks like that
-- not going to get the 355 ships or at least not 355 manned ships. we may need to redefine what a ship is. no? ok. >> i don't know why you say that. >> i'll put it back to you and ask you, how's the fra is going. and particularly noting that as i understand it, it will be compiled over the course of this year with input from the co-coms and if they are already not getting half of their missions met, what's the new fra going to look like? >> the force structure assessment is going to do exactly what you said. it's going to continue to update the navy at the nation needs to immediately, the global responsibility of the united states america and then navy's contribution to meet those responsibilities. the last time we did this was in 2016. that was what resulted in the 355 ship number, a lot of
structures inside of the three -- 355 ship number. 38 amphibs, 66 submarines, et cetera. and so it's important to understand that structure. and so much has changed since 2016 even. this thing is not ancient. i'll tell you it's a testament to how fast things are changing, both the technology is changing in terms of what can define naval power, contribute to enable power going forward and then also the security environment is changing. that's why we're refreshing it. that's primarily an navy effort using other folks outside the navy. we're working closely with the combatant commanders as they update their global campaign plans to make sure that there's an overlap your so that we are all consistent, right, in terms of if general o'shaughnessy , needs this particular force to exercise his responsibility,
well then, it would be really great if we had that force available when needed it. so that's got to be a meeting there of those supply and demand, if you will. so that's got to be an effort we've got going on, should finish up later on this year, late in the summer, and that will influence our i guess the navy that we strive to build going forward. >> ok. well run ships, let ask you, last week the decision to not refuel the truman was reversed . that's obviously several billions of dollars and now that you or your successor have to refuel the truman and keep it going, what changes in your overall plan? >> i'll tell you what, as we've said many times going into both the posture hearings and most of the statements we make, active secretary shanahan and everybody
said that it was a proposal that had a lot of different elements. one was the truman. we are sort of examining the balance of the naval power contribution of the truman versus maybe some advanced technologies. what's the best mix of forces going forward, again, that gives you that net, best net increase of naval power. the assessment was underway, global campaign plans been updated. and we said this is a potentially reversible decision pending the outcome of those studies. we were always fundamentally prepared to reverse that decision, if that's what the environment showed. the environment showed that earlier than we anticipated. it provides clarity in terms of
our way forward with respect to this decision, so it's just a matter of finding the resources to go get it done. >> back to i i guess larger question of great power competition and china. general, you've got a guess the first f-35s embarked on westpac. what are the challenges out there and what you need? >> well, we've embarked f-35s three times now. they went off the west coast. they went into central command. 31st have been embarked on the also went down to exercise in the philippines. airplane is very capable. the readiness was really good if you get you higher lot of number planes, upgraded to the most recent type of software in them, their readiness has been between 5%.70
older planes, we're trying to upgrade those. so the capabilities there and i'm not going to talk about what they did or didn't do or how they did or didn't do it because i think we need to get back in a space where he don't, we talk about, we need to be a little more guarded what we talk about in what we do and how we do it. because i think our adversaries are paying attention to that and it matters. so i would just share that with this audience. that's my personal opinion. so what we actually talk about i think needs to be -- because they are paying attention and i don't want to do anything that would give them an advantage. nothing that would give them an advantage. so were in the kind of different place than we were 20 years ago. as far as having a fifth-generation airplane on a big deck amphib, i think that's a capability that advantages the combatant commands and advantages the naval force. obviously where they are in the
contact they have be protected , we have to be able to move and position them and maneuver to position that the airplane is us -- gives us a certain capability out there. it's going to continue to grow as we continue to field more and more of these airplanes. what we are working on the number of concepts on how we can increase the capability as far as how they are employed and logistic, as you to shoot at the -- as you distribute the force, whether it be surface base force or land-based force. you have got together to sustain it. you have got to be able to move it. because if you stand anywhere too long and you're not -- those of us who grew up in the '70s and '80s and face the soviet union, we are very conscious of our signature. our electromagnetic spectrum signature. we really haven't had to worry about that since the wall tell -- wall fell down because our , adversaries are potential
episodes have no ability to do anything about it. that's not the case anymore. there's a lot of work going on here every time a naval force sails off the east and west coast or goes out of japan or okinawa area, they're doing experiment with aaron operate in that environment to position itself to do that. there's a lot of things going on with the training and how we play the capabilities, how we experiment with future capabilities as we look to maintain an advantage. again, the goal is to not let -- is not to have a conflict. we are trying to ensure our adversaries that in the pacific there's a lot of competition of different love, mostly economic competition. for us we have to be, we can support the other elements of national power whether it be diplomacy or economics by being out there the coast guard, lots , of nations have a coast guard,
are concerned about their fisheries and one is to show up and train their military or their naval forces. we can do civic action, and so we are becoming more and more active and throughout that , not just the pacific a lot but working with our partners. >> admiral, you of course, there's no strange to the western pacific but you have tighter, when the freedom navigation operations in the taiwan strait recently. that's new. we do have a national cutter support in the seventh fleet and we tend to send a follow-up cutter. it's a different face there. obviously we send that ship to the tactical control of the navy. they did a taiwan strait strand and the did some u.n. security council resolution work against dprk in the diploma before looking at some touch points in the oceana region. you look at how do you compete in this great computing power paradigm below the threshold but without -- there's partnership.
we bring unique skills. we're having conversation with the white house nationals could -- national security counsel on that. i would pivot to recent event. two weeks ago today we awarded a contract for the polish security cutter, the first recapitalization had icebreaker capability in more the for use. by no coincidence we put what we call the arctic strategic outlook out there and it really refreshes a plan that my predecessors put out security go -- put out six years ago in 2013, talked about the arctic as a as a place about safety, security and collaboration. the new refresh talks about those same factors but it's really about competing power. we got china operating six of the last six, seven years of the alaskan arctic. obviously paying attention to what the air force is doing in places like elmendorf and other places, you know, they are self-declared near arctic state. that's of interest to us.
there's about 13% of the world's untapped oil. 90 billion barrels is at the on the ocean floor. your between dollars of sink, nickel -- zinc. it's a geographically geo- strategically competitive space. i think former secretary mattis was up there talking about upping our game in the arctic. the high latitude on both ends of the polar regions although that. china is asserted its place down there. we find ourselves as a coast guard in that great power model while trying to forget what sort of those offsetting capabilities and capacity we can offer capacity to support, capacity to support marines and places where we have a lead role like the high latitudes. >> the icebreaker contract is out. the competition didn't go quite like everybody expected, but it got awarded. what's the plan for next year? the coast guard is unique is
basic at to make the plan of your. >> first, i think the contract went quite well. we had five industry teams that participated and did some work for us to drive down acquisition schedule cost risk. our decisions were informed. we are on an aggressive timeline to do this. we're off to the races. i coined early in my tenure, last one june was a 613 strategy. minimum of six icebreakers, three heavy. we change the designate from heavy icebreaker to post security cutter. to capture the reflected differences of space can geostrategic competitive nature of the space now. the one was one now. we're excited about that award with the support of congress. i think for us we got to go back to the till. we have to carry that high capital cost in acquisitions budget, but right now my sense is we enjoy support from the administration. we enjoyed bipartisan bicameral support on this being an
imperative for the nation. the windbreaker we award the contract essentially will -- 2024the 43 year old we're hoping that ship operational. she will not be, she will be close to 50-year-old ship and with got her on life support but the first polish security cutter , it gives us some increased presence in the high latitude region. there is increasing activity in the high latitude region. >> are you looking to award second hull in the next year? >> we are looking, there's money in the budget keeps them programming forward and there will be another tranche of money to get after award the second and the third period between now
and 2027, 2020 we're hoping to fill at least three of those polish security cutters and have further defined strategy of what the real needs are. >> all right. i see you alluded to your vital role in transporting forces. last year you said we were on the ragged edge of being able to conduct a large-scale sealift operations of our combat forces overseas. that was a year ago. revisit that statement. >> well, i could say the same statement again this year, i'm afraid. we have not, in terms of actual numbers, gotten any healthier. we still have about 81 internationally trading vessels in the world, about 60 in the marathon security program, 46 regular reserve ships plus 14 that the military seals operate. the thing that has changed is the readiness of those ships has slipped even more than last year.
manning-wise, we are about the same. we have about an 1800 mariner shortfall for a prolonged the effort. sea effort.t -- things are not going to get markedly better until we get more and newer ships online. the good news is we are getting much more visibility on the issue. and my staff have been working along with trans calm to come up with a program -- t ranscom to come up with a program that we need. we have a path ahead that congress has bought into. it is three-pronged. it will service life extends several of the ships past the age of 60 by upgrading their systems, getting rid of some of the obsolete systems and keeping them viable because the
capabilities they bring are so critical. we will go out on the open market and procure some , makeng, newer ships modifications as required to make them more military useful, and phase out some of the older, 44-year-old ships, especially some of the steamships we still have. we have 24 of those operating as part of the regular reserve force. then we will have new builds. as you all know, the navy has a pretty large order and a lot of plans for building a lot of ships and we have to prioritize those. we are working to figure out the right type of ship to buy, the when.ty to buy, and the good news is while we are still a bit on the edge of being able to provide a solid sea
list over a long time, we are moving in the right direction and we have a plan to get there. >> please get your questions ready and we will be there in a second. last question before we open it up. let's talk climate change. many other threats in the world, russia, china, isis, north korea, but climate change at this point is inexorable. it is coming for our bases, our coastlines. it's going to exacerbate resource competitions in many ways. how are your services grappling with this and do you need to do more? >> it's primarily going to impact commercial ports. we have 17 strategic ports located around the country, which will be our power projection platform.
we need to bring our gear and load our ships overseas. ask what are you doing in terms of making theself more resilient as waters rise. >> are people doing enough? >> they are doing what they can. things are being raised to higher levels. a lot of electronic systems are being moved to higher platforms as they are being rebuilt and re-done. are more difficult than others. it's one of the more chair inching -- challenging areas where you have sea rise and land sinking. it's coming together even more quickly. i know the navy is challenged with figuring out what they are going to do.
again, as we go around, the , and theyaware of it are working on taking action for the future. as farre in a good phase as shipbuilding. we have started cutting steel with shipbuilding groups in january. we are building out a program of fast response cutters. major acquisitions to our infrastructure. each location we go to, we have to have our engineers factoring the backlog for sure infrastructure. when we get a bite of the apple, we are investing for a half-century. we need to form our thinking with the best knowledge we can.
latitudeup to the high . if there is so much climate -- there is a demand signal up there. there is ice right now up there. one breaker goes to antarctica, the increased presence, it's not year-round access, it's increased access. we are informing all of our thinking on the topic of climate change. >> we still haven't recovered so it'sricane florence, not just the level of the water, it's the storms and the floods. like in nebraska. the new buildings suffered damage. you have to build buildings to a different standard. we are a naval force.
we are part of the sea service. we are at or near the coast. we have to be able to get to the sea. with an overint -- $3 billion bill at camp lejeune, there can maybe be a supplemental to address that. be --think we have to like he said, where we put our buildings, do we filled them up, find the high ground? -- build them up, find the high ground? you have different design specifications. we are looking at where we are and what the long-term projection is for those places and what it would cost to move them. the bill is pretty substantial. had totically, if you move camp pendleton, what would you do about that? where would you go? where would the money come from?
thought.bering but we are trying to get the camp fixed and get ready for hurricane season which starts in less than 30 days. i would reinforce what he said. anything new is built to standards that accommodate climate change. the current situation, the legacy infrastructure, we are doing what we must to address .ising sea levels and in working with the time,ity -- most of the there is a community affected. we want to be good community partners as we work through that. i would like to strum on something the commandant said arctic is a very
dynamic situation in response to climate change. seaways are opened that have not been open in our lifetime. the arctic ice caps are the smallest they have ever been. continental shelves are exposed exposed before. that dynamism demands a response from maritime forces in particular. the coast guard and navy are working together on that. we could add our forces together, but we get tremendous value from partnering with the coast guard because of their authority. law enforcement authority and those sorts of things that we don't have in the navy, but putting a law-enforcement attachment on board a ship or sharing intelligence with the we reallyd cutters, do partner effectively both in caribbean,and the the drug zone, if you will, to make the most out of those
forces. >> the modern buildings are resilient. when harvey hit houston and dumped 52 inches of rain and 36 hours, we had a new facility there and we would not have been able to rescue 11,000 people in 72 hours without our partners. that was a clear takeaway. wasdern, resilient facility game changing for that outcome. investments are essential. i talk about a ready coast guard. you have to put a little in the game to be able to deliver the services america expects, that resilient infrastructure. >> ok, who has a question out there. >> i am retired navy.
i work for a software company now. admiral, i know in design 2.0, you talked about how one of your goals is to advance the navy partnership in the industry. theyou speak to some of successes you have enjoyed in your time in the saddle and webe some of the weak areas need to work on together? general approach in terms of partnering with industry is to bring industry into the muchrsation much more -- earlier than has traditionally been done. before this panel, we were having a conversation about that conversation. with thatan we do dialogue early in the process? it allows us to define the trade
space between what is technologically available and achievable, and what the requirements are for the systems we are building. can proceed with something that is much, much better than we have in the force right now. travel, bute time by virtue of understanding the technology space better with input from industry, we can proceed with a lot more confidence in terms of schedule. then what we will do is make those steps a lot more rapid. so, we can deliver capability to the fleet. kind of the theme of the first event here, the breakfast this morning. successes, the and q 25 is one of those, where we brought all of industry in very early and we are going to go put something that was
defined in 2018 that will integrate into the air wing starting in 2000 -- well, as soon as possible, but around 24.3-20 24 that's faster than aircraft programs have been going for some time. the frigate is another example. conceived in 2018. we will have a contract to start building in 2020. a lot of that success was achieved by bringing industry in faster. i tell you, i will just echo what secretary lord said this morning. there is one area where we need to think about this differently. in the acquisition and maintenance of software. the whole private practice, the state of practice in industry, you don't buy software like you buy a ship or an aircraft. creating that special
authorities, colors of money, whatever it might take so that we can achieve and maintain software which is so important going forward, we need to do that so we can maintain the pace required to stay ahead. >> thank you. i have a question for admiral schultz and then a question for admiral richardson. admiral schultz, i just wanted to clarify something you are fy 21 about the fy 20 and funding. did you say you are in fact planning to award contracts for the second and third icebreakers? >> in fy 20, the president's proposal has about 35 million dollars for the program. that keeps the program moving forward. 2021 and beyond budgets,
for the see larger apps polish security cutter. ideally, if you look to our capital investment plan, you will see between now and 2028, we hope to deliver on those first three cutters. i anticipate -- and i'm not getting ahead of the budget process in washington, but 2020 one, you can anticipate a larger asked. we are tied in with the innovative project team with folks at the pentagon, and that puts a face on the budget. -- pace on the budget. as capabilities improve, do you anticipate at some point the navy will count those vessels toward your total battle force ship count, and is there any consideration being given to doing that as you conducted this
ongoing four structure investment? a it's kind of theoretical discussion at the end of the day. i could put it toward the ship count, but it won't fool anybody. matters ishat really how much we are able to deliver. i'm not so caught up in what counts against the battle force, right? that platform delivers a requisite amount of naval power that's available and assignable the theater commander. ok, that contributes to naval power. might coment, that to counting against the battle force or not, but we have to be careful to make sure we are not constructing something that counts to the tally but doesn't
deliver me -- naval power. at the end of the day, the real measure is power, not ship count. >> on the flipside of that coin, regardless of how the unmanned systems go toward that total more ofnt, if you bring those capabilities online, do you think that could reduce the other classes of man ships, potentially? >> the platforms become more comprise more and more of the net power we deliver . given that the nation needs a and that'sof power composed of many components, you can definitely see and anticipate some adjustments within the composition of the naval force. >> great, thank you. >> let's go to this question. next thank you.
>> given the increased effort in directed energy, do you see in the future small-scale nuclear power at the 1-10 megawatt level playing a larger role in the force structure? guess i will take that. >> i am hoping you will take that. >> we tried that already. >> another question back here. to ask you about the news of the day, the national security adviser president announcing a new strike group to the persian gulf and bombers to the region in response to a threat posed by iran. was this a preplanned deployment
or in response to some new threat? if so, what is that threat, and what do you expect this deployment is going to achieve? >> the abraham lincoln strike group was planned to deploy for some time now. ishink that this recent news a great demonstration of a concept we have all been kind of getting after which is dynamic force deployment. it's particularly germane to naval forces which are dynamic by nature. a ship, a strike group, an amphibious ready group, coast guard, et cetera, these are by design. they are designed to move around the globe very fluidly in response to security situations. i find it very encouraging that while the abraham lincoln strike group was out exercising in the european theater, if the dynamic changes and natural -- national
leadership requests that forced to go to a different theater, it's really just a matter of how fluidly and dynamically getting all of that power to move to that theater. >> has the security situation changed with the iranian government? >> if you read secretary bolton's remarks, you have the answer to your question. >> i recently acquired my license. my question is for admiral richardson. the johnached to mccain. , due to those collisions, what new training has the navy implemented for young officers? watch, iappened on my would very well lose my license.
>> i gave a very long answer to that question. you can read my congressional testimony. it provides a lot of that. we have overhauled training from a career standpoint so that each one of our officers, particularly service worker officers, are spending more time getting the experience they need at sea and more time in school getting the training. you can see some examples of the great trainers we are delivering to concentration areas. that allows not only career training but also team training for each of the ships in those different ports. you'll see a much more robust approach to training and a more robust approach to assessing that training as well. you don't get full credit for
participation. you have to pass the exam as well. it's a comprehensive approach. into a climate where we are really trying to achieve best ever performance out of our ships. i think i said secretary bolton. i meant ambassador bolton, of course. i misspoke. >> gentlemen, first of all, thank you very much for coming and being willing to put the bull's-eye in the center of your chest. aboutthat in talking personnel as being one of your bowl marks and one of your key future, aoking to the power competition similar to the cold war era and the new challenge of the retirement
people we may see getting out of the service earlier and earlier, the reserve component becomes more and more of a critical factor. in the cold war, we were able to count all of those reserve members as total and strength. >> and the question is? >> what are you doing to keep total and strength and maintain those people so that they can plug in at the senior level? >> we are not looking to decrease. there are about 38,000 500 marines in the active reserve and another thousand -- everybody ends up in the irr. we are active reserves, always encouraging people when they transition to join the reserve unit. we are reorganizing the reserve to take advantage of some greater skill sets that individuals have and the things
they have done. had -- we have used a significant amount of reserves the last 18 years to be mobilized and deployed in iraq and afghanistan. we are continuing to do that even though the numbers have gone down. we are continuing to deploy reserves in the pacific. we are conscious of readiness because people join an organization like the marine corps or the navy -- i believe they want to go somewhere and do something. they want to contribute. if you don't give them that opportunity, it is hard to encourage them tuesday. we want to make sure they get an opportunity to do that so that readiness stays up. , as far as and strength, we are not trying to
do that. the coast guard has an auxiliary, which i think is an effective model. a look at that for certain skill sets like cyber and other areas where we could get individuals interested in joining the marine corps auxiliary. can squeeze af we few more questions and. with the air force currently embracing multi-domain command and control and the army it, whereembracing does the navy stand and supporting those two concepts or a concept similar to multi-domain operations are multi-domain command and control? >> we are united in that effort.
>> i would second that. manyre coasting hitters of of the initial documents. whether it's distributed maritime operations, contested environment, multi-domain battle, anything else, if you the highest priorities of all the services, you can see that command-and-control and a multi-domain environment and all the domains of battle space have resilient command-and-control, reliable and recoverable command-and-control, which includes power. power is an issue. you have to have energy to drive these systems. i think we have those systems in place. >> my name is mike man. i am semi retired.
i recently had a conversation with a european ship elder who said the commercial shipbuilding industry around the globe is under direct threat by the chinese shipbuilding industry to can't evenhere they compete anymore and they can't sell ships. i was wondering if you were aware of this, if you share this concern, or what if anything we should be doing about it. the koreans, who have been real leaders in shipbuilding over the years, are getting very nervous that the chinese have come on so strongly and are so heavily underwritten to go forth.ment intoare even branching out
cruise ships. are talking to the leaders in that industry and are starting to build cruise ships in china. they are ready to take over that market as well. still shipbuilding because in our country of government contracts and the jones act. that's the only reason we have shipbuilding going on in this country. otherwise, it would all be overseas. here --nk ict moreover i see to moreover here. service tou for your our nation and our navy. you mentioned that centralized command is a fundamental catalan , but howd philosophy
do you balance the desire of higher command to be involved but still have decentralized authority that has been the bedrock of the naval tradition? >> it's a great question. what it takes is a little bit of appetite suppression from the superior commander to make sure the coordinating commander is allowed the chance to develop. there are time-tested ways of getting about that. if you are willing to cede to that commander and let them operate with full authority in the operating space. , if theell you what immediate instinct is to get on some kind of cell phone and call you are probably
breeding habits that are not going to serve you well when operations go down in the first point of attack is the network. that network will degrade. there going to make sure enemy network degrades worse. operate andneed to heal as well. you have to be much more deliberate about it now because it's so easy to reach out and test that person. having said that, there may be some of those very important decisions where you want to do what you can to connect. if the situation is dynamic, the idea of command feedback does still involve communication, so you want to continue to maintain what you can.
it's a really good question. if we had perfect conductivity, you are right, you can see everything and have 100 percent -- not 100%, but visual perception of what's going on. if things start to go bad, there fight ther up and you urge to potentially intervene. but this system does give you the advantage to help anticipate -- i will give you an example. if they request a medevac or you can anticipate they are going to request a medevac, you can facilitate that and set those assets up at higher readiness. but i think what he said is important. i think we are going to be back of mission command
or mission orders because the network is not going to be there. i am operating on the assumption -- most of our training is operating on the assumption that we experience connectivity with the radarce, all pictures, all that stuff. it's not going to be there. or even worse. it's note but accurate. it's not correct but you don't know that. more capable in writing mission orders, telling people what the intent is, and then trusting that they will execute the fight in their own space, be aware of who is in the ship, the organization, the plane, whatever they are fighting, fight their keyboard. they will do what they need to do because they understand what the end stages. that's part of the training stage.
training, you are allowed to make mistakes. you have to put people in a position where they can exercise their initiative and then critique it so that when it goes down for real those mistakes are kept to a minimum. secretary spencer has mentioned the responsibility of freedom of navigation exercise in the arctic. i wanted to know when that might happen, how likely that is, and how that would go with the navy and the coast guard. in -- ie interested would not call this a freedom of , it's partexercise of what we do around the world, but navigating in these free, navigable waters, we want to make sure that as navigation
channels open up consistent with sovereign responsibilities, that we are getting up in remaining familiar with those operating in the high north. there is activity in the navy, marine corps, and coast guard, continuing to be present as the waters open up. in are keenly interested the northwest passage. the coast guard and navy would team together up there. we have a presence in alaska and off norway. presence equals influence in a broader joint force conversation. -- we are thed to
cno successor. the coast guard absolutely wants to be part of whatever that looks like. up for us.l wrap it >> my apologies. one question. i had to rush. announcer: we will have this later in our schedule. you can also find it at c-span.org/maritime. we will leave the last moment of this and take you live to the white house rose garden where president trump is about to award the presidential medal of to golfer freedom tiger woods. that should get underway shortly. live coverage here on c-span.
announcer: here in the white house rose garden, waiting for president trump and golfer tiger woods who will receive the presidential medal of freedom. the president holding a rally wednesday in florida. we will cover that live on the c-span networks. this from the associated press this evening, treasury secretary steven mnuchin has made it official the administration won't be turning over president trump's tax returns to the house of representatives. the secretary told ways and means committee chair richard
neal today that the panel lacks a legitimate legislative purpose. our coverage this evening , aludes, at 8:00 eastern state of black america report focusing mainly on voting rights issues. at 8:30 p.m. on c-span2, remarks veteran andr illinois senator tammy duckworth on the u.s. strategy in iraq. ad on c-span three, discussion of china's role in nuclear discussions with north korea.